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Monday, December 27, 2010

Rulers of the Philippines prior to July 1946 (a brief history)

This entry is from my old (and defunct) blog and sort of the second part of the Philippine Presidents entry.

Philippine modern history began when Ferdinand Magellan (Fernando de Magellanes) first set foot in the islands of Visayas and Mindanao, claiming the country for the King of Spain. The first known national chief executive was Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies. Legazpi and his successors ruled the islands for 333 years in the name of the Spanish monarchs and its empire, the Spaniards even named the islands after one of their greatest kings, Philip II (Felipe II).

Briefly, during the Seven Years War of 1756-1763, when Spain allied with France (The House of Bourbon ruled both countries) went to a virtual world war with Britain and its allies in Europe, North America and Asia, the Philippines becomes a British territory. The British occupation lasted for three years (1762-1764) and only appointed one Governor-General, Dawson Drake, to rule the country in the named of the British monarch and its empire. The British returned the colony to Spain but the Philippines the Spaniards got in return was more rebellious than ever before.

Spanish rule ended in 1898 after the Philippine Revolution, Asia's first nationalist and colonial revolution, and the Spanish-American War. The First Republic of the Philippines (Asia's first republic) was born with General Emilio Aguinaldo as its first President but the republic did not last long. The United States wants a piece of the pie of the Chinese market. The American experimentation of colonialism gives birth to a superpower and the occupied Philippines was the extension of the American westward expansion that goes back to as early as the Proclamation Line of 1763.

The new colonial rulers appointed Military and later Civil Governor-Generals to rule the country, among them was William Howard Taft, the first civil governor and eventually the 27th President of the United States. The country remained an American colony until 1935, when the United States granted the colony self-government and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was born. The Commonwealth lasted for 10 years and co-existed with the Japanese-sponsored Second Republic of the Philippines in the Second World War.

During the colonial periods, the Head of Government were the Governor-Generals while the Head of State were the Kings of Spain and briefly of Great Britain, and the Presidents of the United States of America. However, during Commonwealth period, the Filipino president was the Head of the Government but the Head of State was still the American president. During the Second World War, however, General Masaharu Homma was the chief executive of the Japanese military administration until it was replaced by the Philippine Executive Commission (PEC) and later by the Second Republic.

The Philippines was granted independence by the Americans on July 4, 1946, the 170th anniversary of the American declaration of independence and the Philippines' Third Republic was born. 

Spanish Governor-Generals of the Spanish East Indies (Philippines, Marianas, Carolines, Palau), 1565-1898:
Miguel López de Legazpi 
· Guido de Lavezaris  · Francisco de Sande  · Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa  · Diego Ronquillo  · Santiago de Vera  · Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas  · Pedro de Rojas  · Luis Pérez Dasmariñas  · Francisco Tello de Guzmán  · Pedro Bravo de Acuña  · Cristóbal Téllez de Almanza  · Rodrigo de Vivero  · Juan de Silva  · Andrés Alcaraz  · Alonso Fajardo  · Jeronimo de Silva  · Fernándo de Silva  · Juan Niño de Tabora  · Juan Cerezo de Salamanca  · Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera  · Diego Fajardo  · Sabiniano Manrique de Lara  · Diego de Salcedo  · Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz  · Manuel de León  · Francisco Coloma  · Francisco Sotomayor  · Juan de Vargas  · Gabriel de Curuzealegui  · Alonso de Avila Fuertes  · Fausto Cruzat y Gongora  · Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri  · Martín de Urzua y Arismendi  · Jose Torralba  · Fernando Bustamante  · Francisco de la Cuesta  · Toribio José Cosio  · Fernándo Valdés  · Gaspar de la Torre  · Juan Arrechederra  · Francisco José de Ovando  · Pedro Manuel de Arandia  · Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta · Manuel Rojo · Simón de Anda · Francisco Javier de la Torre  · José Antonio Raón  · Simón de Anda  · Pedro de Sarrio  · José Basco  · Pedro de Sarrio  · Félix Berenguer de Marquina  · Rafael María de Aguilar  · Mariano Fernández de Folgueras  · Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar  · José Gardoqui Jaraveitia  · Mariano Fernández de Folgueras  · Juan Antonio Martínez  · Mariano Ricafort Palacín  · Pascual Enrile  · Gabriel de Torres  · Joaquín de Crámer  · Pedro Antonio Salazar  · Andrés García Camba  · Luis Lardizábal  · Marcelino de Oraá Lecumberri  · Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre  · Narciso Claveria  · Antonio María Blanco  · Antonio de Urbistondo  · Ramón Montero  · Manuel Pavía  · Ramón Montero  · Manuel Crespo  · Ramón Montero  · Fernándo Norzagaray  · Ramón María Solano  · Juan Herrera Dávila  · José Lemery  · Salvador Valdés  · Rafael de Echague  · Joaquín del Solar  · Juan de Lara  · José Laureano de Sanz  · Juan Antonio Osorio  · Joaquín del Solar  · José de la Gándara  · Manuel Maldonado  · Cárlos María de la Torre  · Rafael de Izquierdo · Manuel MacCrohon  · Juan Alaminos  · Manuel Blanco Valderrama  · José Malcampo  · Domingo Moriones  · Rafael Rodríguez Arias  · Fernándo Primo de Rivera  · Emilio Molíns  · Joaquín Jovellar  · Emilio Molíns  · Emilio Terrero  · Antonio Molto  · Federico Lobaton  · Valeriano Wéyler  · Eulogio Despujol  · Federico Ochando  · Ramón Blanco · Camilo de Polavieja  · José de Lachambre  · Fernándo Primo de Rivera  · Basilio Augustín  · Fermín Jáudenes  · Francisco Rizzo  · Diego de los Ríos 

British Governor-General of the Philippine Islands, 1761-1764:
Dawsonne Drake 

American Military Governors of the Philippine Islands, 1898-1901:
Wesley Merritt
  · Elwell S. Otis  · Arthur MacArthur, Jr. 

American Civil Governors of the Philippine Islands, 1901-1935:
William H. Taft  · Luke E. Wright  · Henry C. Ide  · James F. Smith  · William C. Forbes  · Newton W. Gilbert  · Francis Burton Harrison  · Charles Yeater  · Leonard Wood  · Eugene A. Gilmore  · Henry L. Stimson  · Eugene A. Gilmore  · Dwight F. Davis  · George C. Butte  · Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.  · Frank Murphy 

Japanese Military Governors of the Philippines, 1942-1945:
Masaharu Homma  · Shizuichi Tanaka  · Shigenori Kuroda  · Tomoyuki Yamashita


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1 comment:

  1. I desire for you, your family and readers a wonderful Happy New year, peace, love and success, God bless you, everyone, I really appreciate your comment there. Carlos, your Brazilian Friend

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