Thursday, June 30, 2016

Presidents of the Philippines

President Rodrigo Duterte
To commemorate the inauguration of the 16th President of the Philippines, Rodrigo "Digong" Duterte, I'm going to post here the line of succession to the Philippine Presidency from 1898.

Of course, there are some people who would like to argue and want to include Gat Andres Bonifacio, Macario Sakay and General Miguel Malvar to the list of Filipino presidents. That would make the list even more interesting and as a revisionist myself, I would love to. Except that, none of them shouldn't be in the list simply because they were not elected nor they were under a constitution. Personally, for me, the First Republic falls when Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in Palanan, Isabela. Andres Bonifacio and Macario Sakay only wants a "Tagalog Republic" and that means Ilocanos, Pampangos, Bicolanos, Cebuanos, and Maranaos were excluded. Plus, if we include the Presidents of the Tagalog Republics to the list, then we might as well include the President of the "Negros Republic" during the War of Independence. Lets make it more complicated, since at the time of the founding of Katipunan, the authority was the Spanish Colonial Government and if we recognized Bonifacio as President parallel with the Spanish Governor-General then we might as well include the president or whatever the NPA's appointing in their own "parallel government" in the Philippines.

Revising history is all right but revising it too much is not right. Next thing we know, Jose Rizal becomes the first President of the Philippines because La Liga Filipina inspired Bonifacio's Katipunan. Excluding them from the list of Presidents does not diminish their role in our history. Rizal and Bonifacio will always be among the founding fathers in our first attempts of nation building and they are certainly much greater heroes than anyone before and after them but to be a president, they must be elected. Heck, if I am going to revised the list of Presidents, Aguinaldo and Jose P. Laurel will not be in my list since the Filipino people did not democratically elect them and I don't believe in bullshits that we should have a "Filipino George Washington" but just as I said before, such extent of revision is just too much.

Anyway, here is the “Unofficial List of Philippine Presidents” (as of June 30, 2016, 12:00PM):

President Emilio Aguinaldo
Tagalog Republic (1896-1906)
  • Andres Bonifacio (August 1896-March 1897) not recognized
  • Emilio Aguinaldo (March 1897-November 1897) unofficial
  • Macario Sakay (May 1902-July 1906) not recognized

Biak-na-Bato Republic (1897)
  • Emilio Aguinaldo (November 1897-December 1897)

First Dictatorial Government (1898)
  • Emilio Aguinaldo (May 1898-June 1898) unofficial

Philippine Revolutionary Government (1898-1899)
  • Emilio Aguinaldo (June 1898-January 1899) unofficial

Negros Republic [American Protectorate] (1898-1899)
  • Aniceto Lacson (November 1898-July 1899) not recognized
  • Demetrio Larena (November 1898) not recognized

Republic of Zamboanga [Revolutionary and later American Protectorate] (1898-1899)
  • Vicente Alvarez (May 1899-November 1899) not recognized
  • Isidoro Midel (November 1899-March 1901) not recognized
  • Mariano Arquiza (March 1901-March 1903) not recognized
  • Isidoro Midel (March 1903) not recognized

First Philippine Republic [Malolos Republic] (1899-1901)
  • Emilio Aguinaldo (January 1899-April 1901)
  • Miguel Malvar (April 1901-April 1902) not recognized
President Manuel L. Quezon

American Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1946)

  • Manuel L. Quezon (November 1935-August 1944) re-elected in November 1941, term extended due to war, died in office
  • Jose Abad Santos (March 1942-May 1942) appointed by Quezon as ‘acting president’, unofficial
  • Sergio Osmeña (August 1944 -May 1946)
  • Manuel A. Roxas (May 1946-July 1946)

President Ramon Magsaysay
Second Philippine Republic [Japanese-sponsored] (1942-1945)
  • Jose P. Laurel (October 1943-August 1945) unofficial but recognized

Third Philippine Republic (1946-1972)
  • Manuel A. Roxas (July 1946-April 1948) died in office
  • Elpidio Quirino (April 1948-December 1953) also elected in November 1949
  • Ramon Magsaysay (December 1953-March 1957) died in office
  • Carlos P. Garcia (March 1957-December 1961) also elected in November 1957
  • Diosdado Macapagal (December 1961-December 1965)
  • Ferdinand E. Marcos (December 1965-September 1972) re-elected in November 1969

Martial Law [Second Dictatorial Government] (1972-1981)
  • Ferdinand E. Marcos (September 1972-June 1981) although martial law was lifted on January 1981

Fourth Republic of the Philippines [Second Dictatorial Government] (1981-1986)
  • Ferdinand E. Marcos (June 1981-February 1986) ousted by People Power I
  • Corazon C. Aquino (February 1986-March 1986)
President Fidel V. Ramos

Philippine Revolutionary Government (1986-1987)

  • Corazon C. Aquino (March 1986-February 1987)

Fifth Republic of the Philippines [People Power Republic] (1987-present)
  • Corazon C. Aquino (February 1987-June 1992)
  • Fidel V. Ramos (June 1992-June 1998)
  • Joseph Ejercito Estrada (June 1998-January 2001) ousted by People Power II
  • Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (January 2001-June 2010) also elected in May 2004
  • Benigno S. Aquino III (June 2010-June 2016)
  • Rodrigo R. Duterte (June 2016-present)

Philippine Presidents by Constitution:

Constitution of Biak-na-Bato (1897)
  • Emilio Aguinaldo (1897)

Malolos Constitution (1899)
  • Emilio Aguinaldo (1899-1901)

President Carlos P. Garcia
Commonwealth Constitution (1935)
  • Manuel L. Quezon (1935-1944)
  • Sergio Osmeña (1944 -1946)
  • Manuel Roxas (1946-1948)
  • Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953)
  • Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957)
  • Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961)
  • Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965)
  • Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1972)

Philippine Constitution (1943)
  • Jose P. Laurel (1943-1945)

Philippine Constitution (1973)
  • Ferdinand Marcos (1973-1986)
  • Corazon Aquino (1986)

Provisional "Freedom" Constitution (1986)
  • Corazon Aquino (1986-1987)

Philippine Constitution (1987)
  • Corazon Aquino (1987-1992)
  • Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998)
  • Joseph Ejercito Estrada (1998-2001)
  • Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010)
  • Benigno S. Aquino III (2010-2016)
  • Rodrigo R. Duterte (2016-present)

That’s the list of Philippine Presidents. Here is the “Official List of Philippine Presidents” (as of June 30, 2016, 12:00PM) without all the complication and technical stuffs from the above lists.
  1. Emilio Aguinaldo (1899-1901) [Magdalo]
  2. Manuel L. Quezon (1935-1944) [Nacionalista]
  3. Jose P. Laurel (1943-1945) [KALIBAPI]
  4. Sergio Osmeña (1944 -1946) [Nacionalista]
  5. Manuel Roxas (1946-1948) [Liberal]
  6. Elpidio Quirino (1948-1953) [Liberal]
  7. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) [Nacionalista]
  8. Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) [Nacionalista]
  9. Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965) [Liberal]
  10. Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1986) [Nacionalista/KBL]
  11. Corazon Aquino (1986-1992) [UNIDO]
  12. Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998) [Lakas-CMD]
  13. Joseph Ejercito Estrada (1998-2001) [PMP]
  14. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) [Lakas-CMD]
  15. Benigno S. Aquino III (2010-2016) [Liberal]
  16. Rodrigo R. Duterte (2016-present) [PDP-Laban]

As for the best presidents we never had, I could name a few people: Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Carlos P. Romulo, Jose Diokno, Ninoy Aquino, Jovito Salonga, Raul Roco, Richard Gordon and Miriam Defensor-Santiago.

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